Tangent modulus of elasticity. Instantaneous rate of change of stress as a function of strain. It is the slope at any point on a stress-strain diagram.
Tear length. Measure of the drawability of sheet metal. Two small parallel slots are cut in the edge of the sheet to form a tab which is gripped and torn from the sheet. The variation in length of tabs torn in different directions is an indication of crystal orientation in the sheet. (Tabs torn in the direction of orientation are longer.) The degree of orientation is an indication of difficulty to be expected in drawing the sheet to uniform shapes.
Tear resistance. Measure of the ability of sheet or film materials to resist tearing. For paper it is the force required to tear a single ply of paper after the tear has been started. (ASTM D-689). Three standard methods are available for determining tear resistance of plastic films: ASTM D-1004 details a method for determining tear resistance at low rates of loading. A test in ASTM D-1922 measures the force required to propagate a pre-cut slit across the sheet specimen. ASTM D-1038 gives a method for determining tear propagation resistance that is recommended for specification acceptance testing only. Tear resistance of rubber is the force required to tear a 1 in. thick specimen under the conditions outlined in ASTM D-624. Tear resistance of textiles is the force required to propagate a single-rip tongue-type tear (starting from a cut) by means of a falling pendulum apparatus. (ASTM D-1424).
抗撕裂性。薄板或薄膜材料抗撕裂能力的量度。就纸张而言，它是在开始撕纸后，撕开一层纸所需要的力。(ASTM D - 689)。以下有三种标准方法可用于测定塑料薄膜的抗撕裂性:ASTM D-1004详细介绍了在低负荷速率下测定抗撕裂性的方法。ASTM D-1922中的一项试验测量了在薄板上传播预切的狭缝所需要的力。ASTM D-1038提供了一种测定切口撕裂强度的方法，它仅推荐用于规范检验测试。根据ASTM D-624中列出的条件，橡胶的抗撕裂性是指撕开1in.厚试验橡胶所需要的力。而纺织品的抗撕裂性是通过一个落锤装置来传导单撕裂舌状撕裂(从一个切口开始)所需的力。(ASTM D - 1424)。
Tearing strength. Tensile force required to rupture a pre-slit woven fabric specimen under the conditions out-lined in ASTM D-2261 and ASTM D-2262. Edge tearing strength of paper is the force required to tear a specimen folded over a V-notch and loaded in a tensile test machine. (ASTM D-827).
撕裂强度。根据ASTM D-2261和ASTM D-2262规定的条件，撕裂预开缝纺织织物试样所需的拉力。纸张的边缘撕裂强度是将折成V形切口的试样撕裂并装入拉伸试验机所需的力。(ASTM D- 827)。
Temper test. Method for measuring the ability of strip or sheet metal to recover its original shape after bending. Temper of strip and sheet metals for electronic devices is measured by clamping a rectangular specimen in a rotatable clamp, bending it and recording the angle of spring-back. (ASTM F-155). To determine temper of zinc strip, a rectangular specimen is clamped in a rotating mandrel, pressed against the mandrel and released. Spring back is reported in a scale based on the apparatus used. (ASTM B-69).
韧度试验。测量带材或钣金弯曲后恢复其原始形状能力的方法。电子设备所使用的带材和钣金的回火试验是将矩形试样夹于可旋转夹具中，然后将其弯曲并记录回弹角度来进行测量。(ASTM F- 155)。为测定锌带的回火率，我们将一个矩形试样夹在旋转的芯轴中，然后压入芯轴上，并释放。回弹是根据所用仪器进行测定。(ASTM B - 69)。
Tenacity. Force required to break a yarn or filament expressed in grams per denier. It is equal to breaking strength divided by denier.
Tensile impact energy. Energy required to break a plastic specimen in tension by a single swing of a calibrated pendulum. (ASTM D-1822). It is a measure of impact strength obtained in a tension impact test.
拉伸冲击能。通过校准摆锤的单次摆动而使塑料试样断裂所需的能量。(ASTM D - 1822)。它是测量拉伸冲击试验中所获的冲击强度。
Tensile modulus of elasticity. Tangent or secant modulus of elasticity of a material subjected to tensile loading. Alternate terms are Young’s modulus and modulus of elasticity in tension. It can be measured in a tension test or in a dynamic test where it is related to resonant frequency of a cylindrical rod by the equation: E = 412 12 p f2/k2 j4 where E is modulus of elasticity; 1, length of the rod; p, density; f, resonant frequency; k, radius of gyration of the rod about an axis normal to the rod axis and plane of motion (d/4 for cylindrical rods) and j, a constant dependent on the mode of vibration. Tensile modulus of elasticity is approximately equal to compressive modulus of elasticity within the proportional limit. An alternate term is Young’s modulus.
拉伸弹性模量。材料在拉伸负荷作用下的正切或正割弹性模量。它又称为杨氏模量和抗拉弹性模数。于拉伸试验或动态试验中，它与圆柱形杆的谐振频率有关，可由下述公式测得:E = 412 12 p f2/k2 j4，其中E为弹性模量;1为圆杆长度;p为密度;f为谐振频率;k表示圆杆绕垂直于杆轴和运动平面的轴线的回转半径(对于圆柱形杆为d/4)； j表示与振动模式有关的常数。在比例极限内，其拉伸弹性模量近似等于压缩弹性模量。它又称为杨氏模量。
Tensile strength. Ultimate strength of a material subjected to tensile loading. It is the maximum stress developed in a material in a tension test.
Tension impact test. Method for determining energy required to fracture a specimen under shock tensile loading. (ASTM D-1822).
Tension set. Extent to which vulcanized rubber is permanently deformed after being stretched a specified amount for a short time. It is expressed as % of original length or distance between gage marks (ASTM D-412).
Tension test. Method for determining behavior of materials under axial stretch loading. Data from test are used to determine elastic limit, elongation, modulus of elasticity, proportional limit, reduction in area, tensile strength, yield point, yield strength and other tensile properties. Tension tests at elevated temperatures provide creep data.
Procedures for tension tests of metals are given in ASTM E-8, ASTM E-150 (creep tension tests) and ASTM E-151 (elevated temperatures). Methods for tension tests of plastics are outlined in ASTM D 638, ASTM D-2289 (high strain rates), ASTM D-882 and ASTM D 1923 (thin sheets) and ASTM D 795 (high and low temperatures). ASTM D-2343 outlines a method for tension testing of glass fibers; ASTM D-897, adhesives; ASTM D-987, paper products; ASTM D 412, vulcanized rubber.
关于金属的拉伸试验程序在ASTM E-8、ASTM E-150（蠕变拉伸试验）和ASTM E-151（高温试验）中给出。关于塑料的拉伸试验方法在ASTM D 638、ASTM D-2289（高应变率）、ASTM D-882和ASTM D 1923（薄板试验）以及ASTM D 795（高低温试验）中进行了概述。ASTM D-2343概述了玻璃纤维拉伸试验的方法。 ASTM D-897介绍了粘合剂的拉伸试验方法；ASTM D-987介绍了纸制品的拉伸试验方法；ASTM D 412介绍了硫化橡胶的拉伸试验方法。
Thermal stress. Internal stress in part caused by uneven heating.
Time for rupture. Time required to rupture specimen under constant stress and temperature in a creep test.
Torque twist diagram. Graph of torque vs torsional deformation plotted from data obtained in a torsion test.
Torsion resistance. Measure of the resistance to cracking of porcelain enamel coatings on an iron or steel substrate when the base metal is twisted. (ASTM D-409).
抗扭强度。测量钢基或铁基底材上的搪瓷涂层在母材金属扭曲时的抗裂性。(ASTM D - 409)。
Torsion test. Method for determining behavior of materials subjected to twisting loads. Data from torsion test is used to construct a stress strain diagram and to determine elastic limit, torsional modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture in torsion and torsional strength. Shear properties are often determined in a torsion test. (ASTM E-143).
扭转试验。扭转负荷作用下对材料性能的测定方法。该试验通过利用扭转试验所得数据建立应力应变图，从而确定弹性极限、扭转弹性模量、扭转断裂模量和扭转强度。此外，剪切特性通常于扭转试验中测定。(ASTM E - 143)。
Torsional deformation. Angular displacement of specimen caused by a specified torque in torsion test. It is equal to the angular twist (radians) divided by gage length (in.).
Torsional modulus of elasticity. Modulus of elasticity of material subjected to twist loading. It is approximately equal to shear modulus and also is called modulus of rigidity.
Torsional strain. Strain corresponding to a specified torque in the torsion test. It is equal to torsional deformation multiplied by the radius of the specimen.
Torsional strength. Measure of the ability of a material to withstand a twisting load. It is the ultimate strength of a material subjected to torsional loading, and is the maximum torsional stress that a material sustains before rupture. Alternate terms are modulus of rupture and shear strength.
Torsional stress. Shear stress developed in a material subjected to a specified torque in torsion test. It is calculated by the equation: s = Tr/J where T is torque, r is the distance from the axis of twist to the outer most fiber of the specimen and J is the polar moment of inertia
扭转应力。扭转试验中，材料在指定扭矩作用下产生的剪切应力。其计算公式为:s = Tr/J，其中T为转矩，r为从扭轴到试件最外层纤维的距离，J为极惯性矩。
Torsional Yield strength. Yield strength of material under twist loading.
Toughness. Extent to which a material absorbs energy without fracture. It is usually expressed as energy absorbed in an impact test. The area under a stress-strain diagram also is a measure of toughness of a material. (ASTM D-256, plastics and ASTM E-23, metals).
韧性。材料因吸收能量而不会出现断裂的程度。它通常表示为冲击试验中吸收的能量。应力应变图下的面积也是一种材料韧性的量度。(ASTM D-256(塑料)和ASTM E-23(金属).
Transition temperature. Alternate term for ductile-to-brittle transition temperature.
Transverse bend test. Alternate term for flexure test, often used in connection with cast iron.
True strain. Instantaneous % change in length of specimen in mechanical test. It is equal to the natural logarithm of the ratio of length at any instant to original length.
True stress. Applied load divided by actual area of the cross section through which load operates. It takes into account the change in cross section that occurs with changing load.
Twisting test. Method for measuring shear properties of structural materials. (ASTM E-143).
扭转试验。测量结构材料剪切性能的方法。(ASTM E - 143)。