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材料百科
材料百科A-Z之【I】
2020-11-20 01:11:41     浏览:63 次

Impact energy. Energy required to fracture a part subjected to shock loading as in an impact test. Alternate terms are impact value, impact strength, impact resistance and energy absorption.

冲击能。是指冲击试验中,为使受冲击负荷作用的零件断裂而所需的能量。它又称为是冲击值、冲击强度、冲击阻力和能量吸收。


Impact resilience. Measure of the resilience of rubber obtained by dropping a pendulum hammer against a specimen and measuring rebound. (ASTM D-1054). It is the ratio of 1 minus the cosine angle of rebound, to 1 minus the cosine of the original angle of the pendulum, and is expressed as a %. It is sometimes called % rebound. Impact resilience of metal is an indication of hardness obtained in a rebound test such as the test for scleroscope hardness.

冲击回弹性。是指将摆锤置于试样上,并测量回弹来测定橡胶的回弹力。(ASTM D - 1054)。它表示1减去反弹的余弦与1减去摆锤的原始角度的余弦之比,并以%表示。它有时被称为回弹百分比。另外,金属的冲击回弹性是通过回弹试验(如硬度试验)而获得的硬度指标。


Impact strength. Energy required to fracture a specimen subjected to shock loading, as in an impact test. Alternate terms are impact energy, impact value, impact resistance and energy absorption. It is an indication of the toughness of a material.

冲击强度。是指冲击试验中,为使受冲击负荷作用的试样断裂而所需的能量。它又称为冲击能、冲击值、冲击阻力和能量吸收。它表示一种材料韧性的指标。


Impact test. A method for determining behavior of material subjected to shock loading in bending, tension or torsion. The quantity usually measured is the energy absorbed in breaking the specimen in a single blow, as in the Charpy impact test, Izod impact test and tension impact test. Impact tests also are performed by subjecting specimens to multiple blows of increasing intensity, as in the drop ball impact test and repeated blow impact test. Impact resilience and scleroscope hardness are determined in nondestructive impact tests.

冲击试验。是指一种测定材料在弯曲、拉伸或扭转冲击负荷作用下的性能的方法。该试验通常所测量的量是一次冲击中破坏试样所吸收的能量,例如夏比冲击试验、悬臂梁式冲击试验和拉力冲击试验。此外,冲击试验也可通过对试样进行多次增加强度的冲击来进行,如落锤冲击试验和冲击疲劳试验。而在无损冲击试验中可测定冲击回弹性和硬度。


Indentation hardness. Resistance of material to surface penetration by an indentor. See hardness.

压痕硬度。是指材料对压痕器表面渗透的阻力。具体详情,请参阅硬度一节。


International rubber hardness degrees (IRHD). Measure of indentation hardness of rubber. For substantially elastic isotropic rubbers IRHD is related to Young’s modulus by the equation: F/M = 0.00017 R0.65 Pl.35 where F is indenting force in kg; M, Young’s modulus in kg/sq cm; R, radius of indentor in cm, and P, penetration in hundredths of mm. IRHD of a rubber is approximately equal to its durometer hardness. A standard test method for determining IRHD is given in ASTM D-1415.

橡胶国际硬度(IRHD)。是指测量橡胶压痕硬度。对于本质属于弹性各向同性橡胶,IRHD与杨氏模量关系式为:F/M = 0.00017 R0.65 Pl.35,其中F为压痕力,单位为kg;M,为杨氏模量,单位为kg/sq cm;R,为压痕器半径,单位为cm; P,表示穿透度,单位为0.01 mm。橡胶的IRHD约等于其硬度计硬度。ASTM D-1415中给出了测定IRHD的标准试验方法。


Izod impact test. Method for determining behavior of materials subjected to shock loading. Specimen supported as a cantilever beam is struck by a weight at the end of a pendulum. Impact strength is determined from the amount of energy required to fracture specimen. ASTM E-23 describes a standard test procedure, specimens (including notch shapes) and apparatus for Izod impact testing of metals. See also ASTM A-327 (cast iron), ASTM D-256 (plastics) and ASTM D-758 (plastics at sub normal and elevated temperatures). See also Impact test.

悬臂梁式冲击试验。是指冲击负荷作用下材料性能的测定方法。作为悬臂梁支撑的试样置于锤摆末端,以承受重量击打。冲击强度由试样断裂所需的能量决定。ASTM E-23中介绍了金属悬臂梁式冲击试验的标准试验程序、试样(包括缺口形状)和仪器。如需了解更多详情,另请参阅ASTM A-327(铸铁)、ASTM D-256(塑料)和ASTM D-758(低温和高温塑料)。此外,您也可以参阅冲击试验。

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