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材料百科
材料百科A-Z之【E】
2020-11-20 12:11:29     浏览:63 次

Eccentricity of loading. Distance between the actual line of action of compressive or tensile loads and the line of action that would produce a uniform stress over the cross section of the specimen.

负荷偏心距。是指压缩或拉伸负荷的实际作用线与在试样横截面上产生均匀应力的作用线之间的距离。


Edge distance ratio. Distance from the edge of a bearing strength test specimen to the center of the bearing hole, divided by the diameter of the hole. Edge distance ratio is generally reported with results of a bearing strength test

边距比率。是指从轴承强度测试试样的边缘到轴承孔中心的距离,再除以孔的直径。边距比率通常与轴承强度测试结果一并记录。


Edge tearing strength. Measure of the resistance of paper to tearing when folded over a V-notch beam and loaded in a tensile testing machine (ASTM D-827). Results are reported in lb or kg. See also tear resistance.

边缘抗撕裂强度。测量纸张在V形槽梁上折叠并装入拉伸试验机时的抗撕裂性能(ASTM D-827)。结果以lb或kg表示。具体详情,请参阅抗撕裂性。


Elastic hysteresis. Difference between strain energy required to generate a given stress in a material and elastic energy at that stress. It is the energy dissipated as heat in a material in one cycle of dynamic testing. Elastic hysteresis divided by elastic deformation energy is equal to damping capacity.

弹性滞后。是指材料中产生给定应力所需的应变能与该应力下的弹性能之差。它是材料在动态测试周期中以热的形式耗散的能量。弹性滞后除以弹性变形能等于阻尼性能。


Elastic limit. Greatest stress that can be applied to a material without causing permanent deformation. For metals and other materials that have a significant straight line portion in their stress-strain diagram, elastic limit is approximately equal to proportional limit. For materials that do not exhibit a significant proportional limit, elastic limit is an arbitrary approximation (apparent elastic limit).

弹性极限。是指施加在材料上而不会造成永久变形的最大应力。对于应力应变图中直线部分显著的金属和其他材料,其弹性极限近似等于比例极限。而对于无明显比例极限的材料,弹性极限可以是任意近似值(表观弹性极限)。


Elastic limit, apparent. Arbitrary approximation of the elastic limit of materials that do not have a significant straight line portion on a stress-strain diagram. It is equal to the stress at which the rate of strain is 50% greater than at zero stress. It is the stress at the point of tangency between the stress-strain curve and a line having a slope with respect to the stress axis 50% greater than the slope of the curve at the origin.

弹性极限,显著性。应力应变图中,没有显著直线部分的材料的弹性极限的任意值近似。它等于应变速率比零应力大50%的应力。它是应力应变曲线与相对于应力轴的斜率,比曲线在原点处的斜率大50%的直线之间的切点处的应力。


Elasticity. Ability of a material to return to its original shape when load causing deformation is removed.

弹性。是指移除导致材料变形的负荷时,材料恢复至原来形状的能力。


Elongation. Measure of the ductility of a material determined in a tension test. It is the increase in gage length (measured after rupture) divided by original gage length. Higher elongation indicates higher ductility. Elongation cannot be used to predict behavior of materials subjected to sudden or repeated loading.

延伸率。是指在拉伸试验中对材料延伸性的测量。它表示标距长度的增加量(断裂后测量)除以原始标距长度。延伸率越高表明延伸性越好。然而,延伸率不能用于预测材料承受突然或反复负荷作用下的性能。


Embrittlement. Reduction in ductility due to physical or chemical changes.

脆化。是指因物理或化学变化导致韧性降低。


Endurance limit. Alternate term for fatigue limit.

耐久极限。疲劳极限的另一种术语。


Energy absorption. Energy required to fracture a specimen in an impact test. It is a measure of toughness or impact strength. Nil ductility transition temperature is derived from a series of energy absorption measurements at various temperatures.

能量吸收。是指冲击试验中使试样断裂所需的能量。它是韧性或冲击强度的量度。通过从不同温度下进行能量吸收测量,从而得到无延性转变温度。


Engineering stress. Load applied to a specimen in a tension or compression test divided by a cross section area of the specimen. The change in cross section area that occurs with increases and decreases in applied load is disregarded in computing engineering stress. It is also called conventional stress.

工程应力。是指在拉伸或压缩试验中施加于试样的负荷除以试样的横截面面积。计算工程应力时,通常忽略了截面面积随外加负荷的增大和减小而发生的变化。它也被称为常规应力。


Erichsen test. Cupping test in which a sheet metal blank restrained at its edges is deformed at its center by a cone-shaped, spherical-end plunger until fracture occurs. Height of the cup (in mm) at fracture is an indication of ductility. (ASTM A-344).

埃里克森杯突试验。使用锥形球形端活塞使约束在其边缘的钣金材料在其中心发生变形直至断裂的杯突试验。断裂时杯突的高度(单位为mm)即为韧性的指标。(ASTM - 344)。


Expansion test. Control and acceptance test for determining ductility of nonferrous metal tubing. A tapered pin is forced into the end of tubing to produce a specified increase in tube diameter. The tube is then examined for failure. (ASTM B-153). An alternate term is pin test.

膨胀试验。是指有色金属管材韧性的控制和验收试验。该试验是将一个锥形销压入管道末端,以使管径增加指定值。然后检查管道是否有故障。(ASTM B-153)。该试验又称为插销测试。


Extensometer. Instrument for measuring changes in linear dimensions. Also called a strain gage.

伸长计。是指测量线性尺寸变化的仪器。亦称应变计。

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